Updated: Mar 30
Gastric bypass operation is the application of a bypass procedure to the stomach in order to prevent or reduce the absorption and their mixing with the blood of fat and carbohydrate-containing foods that cause weight gain from the intestines. Gastric bypass, which has been widely used surgically since 2001, is performed by deactivating 90% of the patient’s stomach and connecting 10% of the patient’s stomach approximately 150 cm ahead of the small intestine. The first 150 cm of the small intestine is responsible for the absorption of up to 80% of the fat and sugars that enter our body. By passing the digested food from the stomach and attaching it 150 cm forward by bypassing this region, only 20% of the fat and sugar that cause weight gain is taken into the body. In this way, individuals feel fuller earlier.
Which methods used in gastric bypass?
Gastric bypass operation may be performed with both general open surgery and laparoscopic surgery methods. However, laparoscopic method is generally preferred in gastric bypass procedure, and the operation is performed through small incisions in the abdomen. In this way, because of smaller incision sizes, the risks of wounds and complications are lower. Generally, patients are discharged within three to four days after the procedure.
Patient profile for gastric bypass
Similar to other bariatric surgery methods, gastric bypass method is preferred in medical conditions that require sudden weight loss, especially in morbidly obese patients. Gastric bypass offers the most effective and fast solution in cases such as type-2 diabetes, weight loss before emergency surgical interventions in the presence of obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidemia accompanying obesity.
As in other surgical methods, conditions such as substance use, health problems that will prevent surgical intervention, use of steroids and cortisol, and unsuitability for anesthesia are obstacles to gastric bypass.
Generally, obesity is accompanied by different health problems such as hypertension and type-2 diabetes. In addition to these findings, heart and kidney diseases also occur in obesity cases seen in older ages. For this reason, age and other conditions that may be associated with obesity should be evaluated in the patient who will undergo gastric bypass.
Advantages of gastric bypass
According to the studies in the literature, gastric bypass has caused more than 85% improvement in diseases caused or triggered by morbid obesity such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and Type-2 diabetes. In all gastroesophageal reflux patients, complaints cease after Gastric bypass.
Unlike many other bariatric surgery methods, gastric bypass provides the opportunity to fight obesity in a shorter time and more permanently. In this respect, the patient loses weight faster than alternative methods such as liposuction, gastric balloon or stomach botox. The gastric bypass method gives effective and advantageous results in rapid weight loss, especially for individuals with health problems with higher mortality due to obesity.
Another important advantage of the gastric bypass method is that it may also be performed with laparoscopic method. In this way, a smaller incision is made on the body surface, the procedure is completed in a shorter time and the patient is discharged in a shorter time. As with all bariatric surgery methods, gastric bypass method has the advantage of getting rid of health problems caused by obesity in a short time.
Risks of gastric bypass
Although the Gastric bypass procedure has been performed in accordance with international standards since 2001, there are some risks in the Gastric bypass method, like all surgical methods. The most important risk is reoperations due to leaks that may occur in the connection between the stomach and the intestine. Bleeding, vascular coagulation, infection, intestinal obstructions, anastomotic cracks are also risk factors for gastric bypass. The side effect specific to the gastric bypass method is the complaints caused by heavy sugar and carbohydrate intake, also known as dumping syndrome. These are seen in the form of abdominal pain, diarrhea, cramps, palpitations, rashes in the face and neck region. However, these complaints decrease and disappear over time.
In general, the risks after gastric bypass are considered in two categories as the risks related to the rules and living standards of the patient and the risks after the operation. Postoperative medical risks are managed by the postoperative 1, 3, 6 and 9 months follow-up of the patients. In this process, the physician evaluates the patient’s weight status, the change in the stomach condition with other diseases together. Although the health problems that may occur due to gastric bypass are limited, other problems due to obesity and increased weight should be followed closely.
One of the most important patient-related risks after gastric bypass is that the patient continues the wrong diet that the patient had before gastric bypass. Many people think that they will lose weight without difficulty by continuing their daily eating and drinking habits after gastric bypass or, more generally, baritatric surgery. This idea is more common in patients who have difficulty in losing weight with diet. However, unhealthy diet and low physical activity affect not only weight gain but also the healthy functioning of many organs. For this reason, risks after patient-induced gastric bypass are important issues to be monitored.
After gastric bypass
Due to the decrease in the volume of the stomach after gastric bypass, the temporary feeling of fullness turns into a stable feeling of fullness at different times depending on the person. In this process, since the food intake will decrease significantly compared to the past, it is useful to regularly check the patients in terms of vitamins and minerals. Since the gastric bypass method has more surgical features than other bariatric methods, post-operative control is important. Dietitian and doctor recommendations are needed for when to start physical activities, what kind of activities to do, and nutritional levels in patients.
In gastric bypass, which has a more permanent weight loss level compared to other bariatric methods, the balance between food intake and physical activity after gastric bypass is important. Failure to maintain this balance may turn into complaints such as dumping syndrome at first and then into serious complaints. Therefore, long-term follow-up after the gastric bypass and changing the living conditions before gastric bypass that may cause obesity are required.