What does a Urologist do?

In the days of the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, doctors often examined the color, smell and texture of urine. They also looked for boils, blood, and other signs of illness.

Today, an entire field of medicine focuses on the health of the urinary system. This is called urology. Here is an overview of what urologists do and when you should consider seeing one of these specialists.

Urologists diagnose and treat urinary tract diseases in both men and women. They also diagnose and treat everything related to the reproductive system in men.

In some cases, they may perform surgery. For example, they can remove cancer or open a blockage in the urinary tract. Urologists work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, private clinics, and urology centers.

The urinary tract is the system that creates, stores and removes urine from the body. Urologists can treat any part of this system. This includes:

  • The kidneys, which are the organs that filter waste from the blood to produce urine

  • The ureters, which are the tubes through which urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder

  • The bladder, which is the hollow sac that stores urine

  • The urethra, which is the tube through which urine travels from the bladder to the outside of the body

  • The adrenal glands, which are the glands above each kidney that release hormones

Urologists also treat all parts of the male reproductive system. This system consists of:

  • Penis, which is the organ that releases urine and carries sperm out of the body

  • Prostate, which is the gland under the bladder that adds fluid to sperm to produce sperm

  • Testes, which are the two oval organs within the scrotum that produce the hormone testosterone and produce sperm